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Title: Dual harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy at the graphene–liquid interface

Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a powerful technique for the determination of the contact potential difference (CPD) between an atomic force microscope tip and a sample under ambient and vacuum conditions. However, for many energy storage and conversion systems, including graphene-based electrochemical capacitors, understanding electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is paramount. Despite the vast potential to provide fundamental insight for energy storage materials at the nanoscale, KPFM has found limited applicability in liquid environments to date. Here, using dual harmonic (DH)-KPFM, we demonstrate CPD imaging of graphene in liquid. We find good agreement with measurements performed in air, highlighting the potential of DH-KPFM to probe electrochemistry at the graphene–liquid interface.
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [3] ;  [4] ; ; ;  [5]
  1. School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)
  2. (Ireland)
  3. Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)
  4. Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)
  5. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22261633
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 104; Journal Issue: 13; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; ENERGY STORAGE; GRAPHENE; NANOSTRUCTURES