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Title: Electromigration kinetics and critical current of Pb-free interconnects

Electromigration kinetics of Pb-free solder bump interconnects have been studied using a single bump parameter sweep technique. By removing bump to bump variations in structure, texture, and composition, the single bump sweep technique has provided both activation energy and power exponents that reflect atomic migration and interface reactions with fewer samples, shorter stress time, and better statistics than standard failure testing procedures. Contact metallurgies based on Cu and Ni have been studied. Critical current, which corresponds to the Blech limit, was found to exist in the Ni metallurgy, but not in the Cu metallurgy. A temperature dependence of critical current was also observed.
Authors:
;  [1]
  1. IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22261559
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 104; Journal Issue: 14; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ACTIVATION ENERGY; CRITICAL CURRENT; ELECTROPHORESIS; KINETICS; METALLURGY; STRESSES; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE