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Title: Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows

We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a functionmore » of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling.« less
Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22257074
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Rheology; Journal Volume: 58; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: (c) 2014 The Society of Rheology; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BLOOD CELLS; BLOOD FLOW; FIBRINOGEN; RHEOLOGY; SHEAR; SIMULATION; STRESSES; VISCOSITY