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Title: Observing and preventing rubidium runaway in a direct-infusion xenon-spin hyperpolarizer optimized for high-resolution hyper-CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer using hyperpolarized nuclei) NMR

Xenon is well known to undergo host-guest interactions with proteins and synthetic molecules. As xenon can also be hyperpolarized by spin exchange optical pumping, allowing the investigation of highly dilute systems, it makes an ideal nuclear magnetic resonance probe for such host molecules. The utility of xenon as a probe can be further improved using Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer using hyperpolarized nuclei (Hyper-CEST), but for highly accurate experiments requires a polarizer and xenon infusion system optimized for such measurements. We present the design of a hyperpolarizer and xenon infusion system specifically designed to meet the requirements of Hyper-CEST measurements. One key element of this design is preventing rubidium runaway, a chain reaction induced by laser heating that prevents efficient utilization of high photon densities. Using thermocouples positioned along the pumping cell we identify the sources of heating and conditions for rubidium runaway to occur. We then demonstrate the effectiveness of actively cooling the optical cell to prevent rubidium runaway in a compact setup. This results in a 2–3-fold higher polarization than without cooling, allowing us to achieve a polarization of 25% at continuous flow rates of 9 ml/min of {sup 129}Xe. The simplicity of this design also allows it tomore » be retrofitted to many existing polarizers. Combined with a direction infusion system that reduces shot-to-shot noise down to 0.56% we have captured Hyper-CEST spectra in unprecedented detail, allowing us to completely resolve peaks separated by just 1.62 ppm. Due to its high polarization and excellent stability, our design allows the comparison of underlying theories of host-guest systems with experiment at low concentrations, something extremely difficult with previous polarizers.« less
Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. ERC Project BiosensorImaging, Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Berlin (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22255069
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Chemical Physics; Journal Volume: 140; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CHAIN REACTIONS; DENSITY; INFUSION; INTERACTIONS; LASER-RADIATION HEATING; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE; OPTICAL PUMPING; PEAKS; POLARIZATION; RUBIDIUM; SATURATION; SPECTRA; SPIN EXCHANGE; STABILITY; THERMOCOUPLES; XENON; XENON 129