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Title: A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure ismore » based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor. -- Highlights: • A scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables. • Uptake characteristics of cadmium in a series of vegetables is represented by a vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor. • Calculations and measurement steps are combined.« less
Authors:
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22246957
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 126; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ABUNDANCE; CADMIUM; CONCENTRATION RATIO; CONSUMPTION RATES; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; GARDENING; PUBLIC HEALTH; RISK ASSESSMENT; SOILS; URBAN AREAS; VEGETABLES