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Title: Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pbmore » had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)
  2. Department of Psychiatry, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States)
  3. Department of Pediatrics, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States)
  4. Metallomics Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22246952
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 126; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BLOOD; CADMIUM; CALIBRATION STANDARDS; CHILDREN; HEAVY METALS; ICP MASS SPECTROSCOPY; LEAD; MERCURY; REFINING; TOBACCO SMOKES