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Title: Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l{sup −1} HgCl{sub 2} and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam fleshmore » were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ► We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ► We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ► Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified with different FISH probes. ► Hg-reductase (MerA) activity in glass homogenized clam tissues was also determined.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [3]
  1. Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy)
  2. Department of Environmental Science ‘G. Sarfatti’, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy)
  3. Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Via Romana, 17, University of Florence, 50125 Florence (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22246949
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 125; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANIMAL TISSUES; BACILLUS; CLAMS; DETOXIFICATION; FLUORESCENCE; GENES; GILLS; IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION; ITALY; MERCURY; PLANT TISSUES; PLASMIDS; STAPHYLOCOCCUS; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY