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Title: Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: Mimetic exercise training

Highlights: •Rg3 is an ergogenic aid. •Rg3 improves mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. •Rg3 regulates mitochondria dynamic remodeling. •Rg3 alone matches some the benefits of aerobic exercise. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates exercise training could mediate mitochondrial quality control through the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of Rg3 has been elusive. In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied: (1) sedentary control, (2) Rg3-treated and (3) aerobic exercise trained. Both aerobic exercise training and Rg3 supplementation enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels in cardiac muscle. The activation of PGC-1α led to increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1(Nrf1), these changes were accompanied by increases in mitochondrial DNA copy number and complex protein levels, while activation of Nrf2 increased levels of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1),more » superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Aerobic exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), these effects of aerobic exercise are comparable to that of Rg3. These results demonstrate that Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Key Laboratory of State General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai 200031 (China)
  2. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22242182
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; Journal Volume: 441; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BENZOQUINONES; CATALASE; DNA; EXERCISE; MESSENGER-RNA; MITOCHONDRIA; MUSCLES; QUALITY CONTROL; RATS; RECEPTORS; SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS