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Title: Efficient numerical methods for computing ground states of spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensates based on their characterizations

In this paper, we propose efficient numerical methods for computing ground states of spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) with/without the Ioffe–Pritchard magnetic field B(x). When B(x)≠0, a numerical method is introduced to compute the ground states and it is also applied to study properties of ground states. Numerical results suggest that the densities of m{sub F}=±1 components in ground states are identical for any nonzero B(x). In particular, if B(x)≡B≠0 is a constant, the ground states satisfy the single-mode approximation. When B(x)≡0, efficient and simpler numerical methods are presented to solve the ground states of spin-1 BECs based on their ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic characterizations. Numerical simulations show that our methods are more efficient than those in the literature. In addition, some conjectures are made from our numerical observations.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Department of Mathematics and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119076 (Singapore)
  2. Department of Applied Mathematics and Center of Mathematical Modeling and Scientific Computing, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)
  3. (China)
  4. Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409-0020 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22230822
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Computational Physics; Journal Volume: 253; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
97 MATHEMATICAL METHODS AND COMPUTING; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ANTIFERROMAGNETISM; APPROXIMATIONS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DENSITY; GROUND STATES; MAGNETIC FIELDS; SPIN