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Title: Long-range interactions and the sign of natural amplitudes in two-electron systems

In singlet two-electron systems, the natural occupation numbers of the one-particle reduced density matrix are given as squares of the natural amplitudes which are defined as the expansion coefficients of the two-electron wave function in a natural orbital basis. In this work, we relate the sign of the natural amplitudes to the nature of the two-body interaction. We show that long-range Coulomb-type interactions are responsible for the appearance of positive amplitudes and give both analytical and numerical examples that illustrate how the long-distance structure of the wave function affects these amplitudes. We further demonstrate that the amplitudes show an avoided crossing behavior as function of a parameter in the Hamiltonian and use this feature to show that these amplitudes never become zero, except for special interactions in which infinitely many of them can become zero simultaneously when changing the interaction strength. This mechanism of avoided crossings provides an alternative argument for the non-vanishing of the natural occupation numbers in Coulomb systems.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Theoretical Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  2. Department of Physics, Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä, Survontie 9, Jyväskylä (Finland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22224143
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Chemical Physics; Journal Volume: 139; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: (c) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; AMPLITUDES; DENSITY MATRIX; ENERGY LEVELS; HAMILTONIANS; INTERACTION RANGE; INTERACTIONS; PHOTON-ATOM COLLISIONS; WAVE FUNCTIONS