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Title: Performance of a hybrid pyroelectric LiNbO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} nanotubes X-ray source

Effects of crystal length and temperature on performance and degradation properties of LiNbO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} pyroelectric/nanotube X-ray source were studied. Such hybrid LiNbO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} X-ray source was fabricated by bonding electrochemically grown TiO{sub 2} nanotubes on −z face of pyroelectric LiNbO{sub 3} crystal. In particular, it was found that maximum accelerated electron energy increased with height for both pure and hybrid LiNbO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} system for both heating and cooling cycles. For example, for 2 cm long hybrid structure the resulting maximum energy during heating cycle was 97 keV as compared to 74 keV for 1 cm long structure. The maximum energy for the pure sample without nanotubes increased from 45 keV to 66 keV. Increased endpoint energy of nanotube based X-ray source is attributed to electric field amplification on nanotube tips increasing the efficiency of residual gas ionization, leading to improved charge carrier transmission efficiency. The degradation properties were studied by performing multiple thermal cycles and results revealed that cluster nanotips erode over time. After 20 cycles they become flat as was evidenced from scanning electron microscope analysis.
Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22220539
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 84; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: (c) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; BONDING; CHARGE CARRIERS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CRYSTALS; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRIC FIELDS; ELECTRONS; HYBRIDIZATION; KEV RANGE; LITHIUM COMPOUNDS; NANOTUBES; NIOBATES; NIOBIUM OXIDES; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; TITANIUM OXIDES; X RADIATION; X-RAY SOURCES