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Title: Grazing-incidence x-ray fluorescence analysis for non-destructive determination of In and Ga depth profiles in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber films

Development of highly efficient thin film solar cells involves band gap engineering by tuning their elemental composition with depth. Here we show that grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis using monochromatic synchrotron radiation and well-characterized instrumentation is suitable for a non-destructive and reference-free analysis of compositional depth profiles in thin films. Variation of the incidence angle provides quantitative access to the in-depth distribution of the elements, which are retrieved from measured fluorescence intensities by modeling parameterized gradients and fitting calculated to measured fluorescence intensities. Our results show that double Ga gradients in Cu(In{sub 1−x},Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} can be resolved by GIXRF.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ; ; ;  [1] ; ; ; ; ; ;  [3] ; ;  [4]
  1. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)
  2. (Germany)
  3. Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr.2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)
  4. Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22218055
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: (c) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; COPPER COMPOUNDS; DEPTH; GALLIUM COMPOUNDS; INCIDENCE ANGLE; MONOCHROMATIC RADIATION; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; SIMULATION; SOLAR CELLS; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; THIN FILMS; X RADIATION; X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS