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Title: Isochronal annealing study of X-ray induced defects in single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes

X-ray induced defects in single-walled (SWCNTs) and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) were characterized by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Frenkel defects, interstitial-vacancy pairs, were revealed to form in both SWCNTs and DWCNTs after X-ray irradiation because these defects were entirely healed by thermal annealing. In order to clarify the structure of the X-ray induced defect in SWCNT and DWCNT, isochronal-annealing experiments were performed on the irradiated samples and the activation energy for defect healing was estimated. The intensity of D band (defect induced band) on Raman spectra was used as a measure of the density of X-ray induced defects. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulated values using second order reaction model, which indicated that the defect healing was determined by the migration energy of interstitials on the carbon layer. We also found that the activation energy for defect healing of SWCNT and DWCNT were around 0.5 eV and 0.32 eV, respectively. The X-ray induced defects in SWCNTs were more stable than those in DWCNTs. Compared these estimated activation energies to previous theoretical reports, we concluded that bridge and/or dumbbell interstitials are formed in both SWCNT and DWCNT by X-ray irradiation.
Authors:
; ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, Wakayama University, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan)
  2. Department of Physics, Wakayama University, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22218008
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: (c) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ACTIVATION ENERGY; ANNEALING; CARBON NANOTUBES; FRENKEL DEFECTS; INTERSTITIALS; IRRADIATION; PHYSICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; RAMAN SPECTRA; X RADIATION