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Title: Surfatron acceleration of protons by an electromagnetic wave at the heliosphere periphery

The trapping and subsequent efficient surfatron acceleration of weakly relativistic protons by an electromagnetic wave propagating across an external magnetic field in plasma at the heliosphere periphery is considered. The problem is reduced to analysis of a second-order time-dependent nonlinear equation for the wave phase on the particle trajectory. The conditions of proton trapping by the wave, the dynamics of the components of the particle momentum and velocity, the structure of the phase plane, the particle trajectories, and the dependence of the acceleration rate on initial parameters of the problem are analyzed. The asymptotic behavior of the characteristics of accelerated particles for the heliosphere parameters is investigated. The optimum conditions for surfatron acceleration of protons by an electromagnetic wave are discussed. It is demonstrated that the experimentally observed deviation of the spectra of cosmic-ray protons from standard power-law dependences can be caused by the surfatron mechanism. It is shown that protons with initial energies of several GeV can be additionally accelerated in the heliosphere (the region located between the shock front of the solar wind and the heliopause at distances of about 100 astronomical units (a.u.) from the Sun) up to energies on the order of several thousands of GeV.more » In order to explain the proton spectra in the energy range of ∼20–500 GeV, a two-component phenomenological model is proposed. The first component corresponds to the constant (in this energy range) galactic contribution, while the second (variable) component corresponds to the heliospheric contribution, which appears due to the additional acceleration of soft cosmic-ray protons at the heliosphere periphery. Variations in the proton spectra measured on different time scales between 1992 and 2008 in the energy range from several tens to several hundred GeV, as well as the dependence of these spectra on the heliospheric weather, can be explained by surfatron acceleration of protons in the heliosphere.« less
Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22216073
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Plasma Physics Reports; Journal Volume: 39; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.; http://www.springer-ny.com; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; ACCELERATION; ASYMPTOTIC SOLUTIONS; COSMIC RADIATION; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; GEV RANGE; HELIOSPHERE; MAGNETIC FIELDS; NONLINEAR PROBLEMS; PARTICLES; PLASMA; PROTON SPECTRA; PROTONS; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; SOLAR WIND; SUN; TIME DEPENDENCE; TRAPPING