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Title: Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenicmore » but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ► We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ► We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ► We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ► We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ► The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ;  [1] ;  [3] ; ;  [4] ; ; ;  [5] ;  [1]
  1. UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Rua Expedicionários do Brasil, 1621, Araraquara (Brazil)
  2. UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Natural Principles and Toxicology, Rodovia Araraquara-Jau, km 01, Araraquara (Brazil)
  3. UNIFESP — Federal University of São Paulo, Paulista College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Rua Pedro de Toledo, 720, São Paulo (Brazil)
  4. UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Chemistry Institute, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Rua Francisco Degni, S/N, Araraquara (Brazil)
  5. UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Chemistry Institute, Department of Organic Chemistry, Rua Francisco Degni, S/N, Araraquara (Brazil)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22216008
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 265; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BONE MARROW CELLS; BRAZIL; CONCENTRATION RATIO; DNA; DNA DAMAGES; ERYTHROCYTES; METHANOL; METHYLENE CHLORIDE; MICE; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; SUGAR CANE; TOTAL SUSPENDED PARTICULATES; TRADESCANTIA