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Title: Synthesis and characterization of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with controllable crystal size by a simple MWCNT template method

Highly crystalline phase-pure anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were produced by performing a simple calcinations process in air of the TiO{sub 2} coated MWCNTs composite material prepared by an in situ sol-gel method. A homogeneous thin coating layer of TiO{sub 2} on the surface of MWCNTs is firstly obtained. Calcination in ambient air at appropriate temperatures is performed to transform phase of TiO{sub 2} into anatase and remove MWCNTs simultaneously, resulting in pure anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. Both end tips of the nanotubes are observed to be closed, probably due to covering up MWCNTs with TiO{sub 2} particles. The crystallization of anatase phase was formed upon 350 Degree-Sign C, and MWCNTs are completely oxidized between 500 and 650 Degree-Sign C, leaving anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with an average crystal size increasing from about 8 to 24 nm as the temperature rises. Moreover, the tubular structure was found to collapse after calcinations at 700 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: TGA analysis and TEM images of the samples after calcinations in air at different temperatures: (a) before calcinations, (b) 350 Degree-Sign C, (c) 500 Degree-Sign C, and (d) 650 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly crystalline and stable phase-pure anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes weremore » produced by a simply MWCNT template method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A homogeneous thin coating layer of TiO{sub 2} on the surface of MWCNTs could be obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small crystal size of anatase is formed at lower temperatures and higher temperatures cause significant increase of crystal size from 8 to 24 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convex closed tip structure of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes is formed owing to the good coating of TiO{sub 2}.« less
Authors:
; ;  [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [3] ;  [1]
  1. Future Industry R and D Center, DH Holdings Co., LTD, 705-32 Yeoksam-Dong, Kangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-080 (Korea, Republic of)
  2. Research and Development Division, Hyundai Motors, 460-30 Sam-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeongg do 437-815 (Korea, Republic of)
  3. Composite Materials Research Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwondaero, Seongsna-gu, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22149966
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 196; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; CALCINATION; COMPOSITE MATERIALS; CRYSTALLIZATION; CRYSTALS; LAYERS; NANOTUBES; SOL-GEL PROCESS; SYNTHESIS; THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS; TITANIUM OXIDES; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY