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Title: Nonlinear screening of dust grains and structurization of dusty plasma

A review of theoretical ideas on the physics of structurization instability of a homogeneous dusty plasma, i.e., the formation of zones with elevated and depressed density of dust grains and their arrangement into different structures observed in laboratory plasma under microgravity conditions, is presented. Theoretical models of compact dust structures that can form in the nonlinear stage of structurization instability, as well as models of a system of voids (both surrounding a compact structure and formed in the center of the structure), are discussed. Two types of structures with very different dimensions are possible, namely, those smaller or larger than the characteristic mean free path of ions in the plasma flow. Both of them are characterized by relatively regular distributions of dust grains; however, the first ones usually require external confinement, while the structures of the second type can be self-sustained (which is of particular interest). In this review, they are called dust clusters and self-organized dust structures, respectively. Both types of the structures are characterized by new physical processes that take place only in the presence of the dust component. The role of nonlinearities in the screening of highly charged dust grains that are often observed in modern laboratorymore » experiments turns out to be great, but these nonlinearities have not received adequate study as of yet. Although structurization takes place upon both linear and nonlinear screening, it can be substantially different under laboratory and astrophysical conditions. Studies on the nonlinear screening of large charges in plasma began several decades ago; however, up to now, this effect was usually disregarded when interpreting the processes occurring in laboratory dusty plasma. One of the aims of the present review was to demonstrate the possibility of describing the nonlinear screening of individual grains and take it into account with the help of the basic equations for the equilibrium between plasma components when analyzing equilibrium structures. The effect of plasma screening nonlinearity on both the diffusion processes and the forces of dust drag by plasma fluxes is analyzed. It is shown how self-organized dust structures form in these processes. In the limit of very small dust grain charges, the forces acting on the dusty plasma components and the set of basic equations for stationary dust structures (with allowance for nonlinear screening) take a standard form. New qualitative effects, such as the suppression of diffusion due to ion scattering from dust grains and the formation of structures of different configurations, are described. A detailed comparison with previous results is performed. It is shown that the solution of basic nonlinear equations for dust structures yields new qualitative effects. A number of new effects to be studied in future dusty plasma experiments with the formation of structures in spherical chambers are predicted (it is assumed that diffusion will play a significant role under microgravity conditions). Recent ground-based experiments, as well as experiments carried out onboard the International Space Station, directly confirm the nonlinear character of screening and the significant role played by this nonlinearity in the structurization of dusty plasma. Experiments on the formation of structures consisting of smaller dust grains within structures formed of larger grains are discussed. It is shown that those experiments can be interpreted only using the concept of nonlinear screening.« less
Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22149312
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Plasma Physics Reports; Journal Volume: 39; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.; http://www.springer-ny.com; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; ASTROPHYSICS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CONFINEMENT; DENSITY; DIFFUSION; DISTRIBUTION; DUSTS; EQUILIBRIUM; GRAIN SIZE; INSTABILITY; INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION; MEAN FREE PATH; NONLINEAR PROBLEMS; PLASMA; SCATTERING