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Title: GAPS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS AS SIGNATURES OF PLANETS. II. INCLINED DISKS

We examine the observational appearance of partial gaps being opened by planets in protoplanetary disks, considering the effects of the inclination relative to the line of sight. We model the disks with static {alpha}-models with detailed radiative transfer, parameterizing the shape and size of the partially cleared gaps based on the results of hydrodynamic simulations. As in previous work, starlight falling across the gap leads to high surface brightness contrasts. The gap's trough is darkened by both shadowing and cooling, relative to the uninterrupted disk. The gap's outer wall is brightened by direct illumination and also by heating, which puffs it up so that it intercepts more starlight. In this paper, we examine the effects of inclination on resolved images of disks with and without gaps at a wide range of wavelengths. The scattering surface's offset from the disk midplane creates a brightness asymmetry along the axis of inclination, making the disk's near side appear brighter than the far side in scattered light. Finite disk thickness also causes the projected distances of equidistant points on the disk surface to be smaller on the near side of the disk as compared to the far side. Consequently, the gap shoulder on themore » near side of the disk should appear brighter and closer to the star than on the far side. However, if the angular resolution of the observation is coarser than the width of the brightened gap shoulder, then the gap shoulder on the far side may appear brighter because of its larger apparent size. We present a formula to recover the scale height and inclination angle of an imaged disk using simple geometric arguments and measuring disk asymmetries. Resolved images of circumstellar disks have revealed clearings and gaps, such as the transitional disk in LkCa 15. Models created using our synthetic imaging attempting to match the morphology of observed scattered light images of LkCa 15 indicate that the H-band flux deficit in the inner {approx}0.''5 of the disk can be explained with a planet if mass is greater than 0.5 Jupiter mass.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)
  2. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22121891
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 772; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASYMMETRY; BRIGHTNESS; COOLING; DISTANCE; GEOMETRY; HEATING; HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL; ILLUMINANCE; IMAGES; INCLINATION; MASS; MORPHOLOGY; PROTOPLANETS; RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER; SCALE HEIGHT; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; STARS; THICKNESS; VISIBLE RADIATION