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Title: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTS OF FU ORIONIS OBJECTS WITH HERSCHEL

We present Herschel-HIFI, SPIRE, and PACS 50-670 {mu}m imaging and spectroscopy of six FU Orionis-type objects and candidates (FU Orionis, V1735 Cyg, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, V1331 Cyg, and HBC 722), ranging in outburst date from 1936 to 2010, from the 'FOOSH' (FU Orionis Objects Surveyed with Herschel) program, as well as ancillary results from Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. In their system properties (L{sub bol}, T{sub bol}, and line emission), we find that FUors are in a variety of evolutionary states. Additionally, some FUors have features of both Class I and II sources: warm continuum consistent with Class II sources, but rotational line emission typical of Class I, far higher than Class II sources of similar mass/luminosity. Combining several classification techniques, we find an evolutionary sequence consistent with previous mid-IR indicators. We detect [O I] in every source at luminosities consistent with Class 0/I protostars, much greater than in Class II disks. We detect transitions of {sup 13}CO (J{sub up} of 5-8) around two sources (V1735 Cyg and HBC 722) but attribute them to nearby protostars. Of the remaining sources, three (FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, and V1331 Cyg) exhibit only low-lying CO, but one (V1057 Cyg)more » shows CO up to J = 23 {yields} 22 and evidence for H{sub 2}O and OH emission, at strengths typical of protostars rather than T Tauri stars. Rotational temperatures for 'cool' CO components range from 20 to 81 K, for {approx} 10{sup 50} total CO molecules. We detect [C I] and [N II] primarily as diffuse emission.« less
Authors:
; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ; ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ; ;  [11] ;  [12]
  1. Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)
  2. European Space Agency (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)
  3. Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
  4. Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)
  5. Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
  6. Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands)
  7. Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
  8. Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)
  9. Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus Cantoblanco (Spain)
  10. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States)
  11. Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna (Austria)
  12. Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy (CASA), University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22121805
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 772; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; CARBON MONOXIDE; CENTAURO-TYPE EVENTS; EMISSION; HYDROXYL RADICALS; LUMINOSITY; MASS; MOLECULES; PROTOSTARS; SPECTROSCOPY; T TAURI STARS; VARIABLE STARS; WATER