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Title: Fundamental radiological and geometric performance of two types of proton beam modulated discrete scanning systems

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to compare and contrast the measured fundamental properties of two new types of modulated proton scanning systems. This provides a basis for clinical expectations based on the scanned beam quality and a benchmark for computational models. Because the relatively small beam and fast scanning gave challenges to the characterization, a secondary purpose was to develop and apply new approaches where necessary to do so.Methods: The following performances of the proton scanning systems were investigated: beamlet alignment, static in-air beamlet size and shape, scanned in-air penumbra, scanned fluence map accuracy, geometric alignment of scanning system to isocenter, maximum field size, lateral and longitudinal field uniformity of a 1 l cubic uniform field, output stability over time, gantry angle invariance, monitoring system linearity, and reproducibility. A range of detectors was used: film, ionization chambers, lateral multielement and longitudinal multilayer ionization chambers, and a scintillation screen combined with a digital video camera. Characterization of the scanned fluence maps was performed with a software analysis tool.Results: The resulting measurements and analysis indicated that the two types of delivery systems performed within specification for those aspects investigated. The significant differences were observed between the two types of scanningmore » systems where one type exhibits a smaller spot size and associated penumbra than the other. The differential is minimum at maximum energy and increases inversely with decreasing energy. Additionally, the large spot system showed an increase in dose precision to a static target with layer rescanning whereas the small spot system did not.Conclusions: The measured results from the two types of modulated scanning types of system were consistent with their designs under the conditions tested. The most significant difference between the types of system was their proton spot size and associated resolution, factors of magnetic optics, and vacuum length. The need and benefit of mutielement detectors and high-resolution sensors was also shown. The use of a fluence map analytical software tool was particularly effective in characterizing the dynamic proton energy-layer scanning.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ; ; ;  [2]
  1. Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum Essen, Universitaetsklinikum-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147 Essen (Germany)
  2. Ion Beam Applications, Chemin du Cyclotron, 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22121630
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 40; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: (c) 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BENCHMARKS; COMPUTER CODES; DOSIMETRY; FILMS; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; MONITORING; PERFORMANCE; PROTON BEAMS; PROTONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SCINTILLATION COUNTERS; SCINTILLATIONS; SENSORS; SPECIFICATIONS; TELEVISION CAMERAS