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Title: ELECTRON ACCELERATIONS AT HIGH MACH NUMBER SHOCKS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATIONS IN VARIOUS PARAMETER REGIMES

Electron accelerations at high Mach number collisionless shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various Alfven Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron {beta}{sub e} (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We find electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (M{sub A} {approx} 30) with a mass ratio of M/m = 100 and {beta}{sub e} = 0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with a large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low.
Authors:
 [1] ; ;  [2]
  1. Department of Physics, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)
  2. Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 1-33, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22039089
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 755; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCELERATION; ASTROPHYSICS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COSMIC ELECTRONS; COSMOLOGY; ELECTRON TEMPERATURE; INSTABILITY; IONS; MACH NUMBER; MASS; PLASMA; POTENTIALS; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; SHOCK WAVES; SUPERNOVA REMNANTS; TRAPPING