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Title: Differential nuclear remodeling of mammalian somatic cells by Xenopus laevis oocyte and egg cytoplasm

The mechanisms governing nuclear reprogramming have not been fully elucidated yet; however, recent studies show a universally conserved ability of both oocyte and egg components to reprogram gene expression in somatic cells. The activation of genes associated with pluripotency by oocyte/egg components may require the remodeling of nuclear structures, such that they can acquire the features of early embryos and pluripotent cells. Here, we report on the remodeling of the nuclear lamina of mammalian cells by Xenopus oocyte and egg extracts. Lamin A/C is removed from somatic cells incubated in oocyte and egg extracts in an active process that requires permeable nuclear pores. Removal of lamin A/C is specific, since B-type lamins are not changed, and it is not dependent on the incorporation Xenopus egg specific lamin III. Moreover, transcriptional activity is differentially regulated in somatic cells incubated in the extracts. Pol I and II transcriptions are maintained in cells in oocyte extracts; however, both activities are abolished in egg extracts. Our study shows that components of oocyte and egg extracts can modify the nuclear lamina of somatic cells and that this nuclear remodeling induces a structural change in the nucleus which may have implications for transcriptional activity. These experimentsmore » suggest that modifications in the nuclear lamina structure by the removal of somatic proteins and the incorporation of oocyte/egg components may contribute to the reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei and may define a characteristic configuration of pluripotent cells.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Animal Development and Biotechnology Group, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, Leics, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom)
  2. Institute of Genetics, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)
  3. Department of Cell Biology, University of Bremen (Germany)
  4. Animal Development and Biotechnology Group, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, Leics, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom). E-mail: keith.campbell@nottingham.ac.uk
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20717619
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Experimental Cell Research; Journal Volume: 307; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2005.02.028; PII: S0014-4827(05)00088-1; Copyright (c) 2005 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CYTOPLASM; EMBRYOS; GENES; OOCYTES; PROTEINS; SOMATIC CELLS; TRANSCRIPTION