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Title: Photon detectors

J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode canmore » be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.« less
Authors:
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
192356
Report Number(s):
SLAC-PUB--95-6961; CONF-9506250--3
ON: DE96003495; TRN: 96:005527
DOE Contract Number:
AC03-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: RICH `95: workshop on ring imaging detectors, Uppsala (Sweden), 12-16 Jun 1995; Other Information: PBD: Oct 1995
Research Org:
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
44 INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; CHERENKOV COUNTERS; EVALUATION; GAMMA DETECTION; CESIUM IODIDES; CALIFORNIUM FLUORIDES; MATERIALS; PHOTOCATHODES; SOLID SCINTILLATION DETECTORS; ELECTRON DETECTION