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Title: Determination of Swimming Speeds and Energetic Demands of Upriver Migrating Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Klickitat River, Washington

This report describes a field study by PNNL for Bonneville Power Administration in fall 2001 to study the migration and energy use of adult fall chinook salmon traveling up the Klickitat River to spawn. The salmon were tagged with surgically implanted electromyogram transmitters or gastrically implanted coded transmitters. Swim speed and aerobic and anaerobic energy use were determined for the fish as they attempted to pass three waterfalls on the lower Klickitat and as they traversed free-flowing stretches between and below the falls. Of the 35 EMG-tagged fish released near the mouth of the Klickitat, 40% passed the first falls, 36% passed the second falls, and 20% reached Lyle Falls but were unable to leap over. Mean swimming speeds ranged from as low as 52.6 cm/sec between falls to as high as 158.1 cm/sec at falls passage. Fish exhibited a higher percentage of occurrences of burst swimming while passing the falls than while between falls (58.9% versus 1.7%). However, fish expended more energy swimming the stretches between the falls than during actual falls passage (52.3-236.2 kcals versus 0.3-1.1 kcals). Male-female and day-night differences in falls passage success were noted. PNNL also examined energy costs and swimming speeds for fish releasedmore » above Lyle Falls as they migrated to upstream spawning areas. This journey averaged 15.93 days at a mean rate of 2.36 km/day to travel a mean maximum of 37.6 km upstream at a total energy cost of approx 4,492 kcals (32% anaerobic/68% aerobic). When the salmon have expended the estimated 968 kcals needed to get through Bonneville Dam and the three falls on the Lower Klickitat, plus this 4,492 kcals to reach the spawning grounds, they are left with approximately 8 to 12% (480 to 742 kcals) of their energy reserves for spawning. A delay of 4 to 7 days along the lower Klickitat River could deplete their remaining energy reserves (at a rate of about 103 kcals/day), resulting in death before spawning would occur.« less
Authors:
;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
15010138
Report Number(s):
PNNL-13975
400480000; TRN: US200502%%134
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 1 Jul 2002
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US)
Sponsoring Org:
US Department of Energy (US)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ADULTS; DEATH; RIVERS; SALMON; POPULATION DYNAMICS; MIGRATION SALMON SURVIVAL; BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION; COLUMBIA RIVER; KLICKITAT RIVER; CHINOOK SALMON; ELECTROMYOGRAM; SWIM SPEED; AEROBIC ENERGY; ANAEROBIC ENERGY