skip to main content

Title: Comparison of the bioavailability of elemental waste laden soils using in vivo and in vitro analytical methodology and refinement of exposure/dose models. 1998 annual progress report

'The authors hypotheses are: (1) the more closely the synthetic, in vitro, extractant mimics the extraction properties of the human digestive bio-fluids, the more accurate will be the estimate of an internal dose; (2) performance can be evaluated by in vivo studies with a rat model and quantitative examination of a mass balance, calculation and dose estimates from model simulations for the in vitro and in vivo system; and (3) the concentration of the elements Pb, Cd, Cr and selected Radionuclides present in the bioavailable fraction obtained with a synthetic extraction system will be a better indicator of contaminant ingestion from a contaminated soil because it represents the portion of the mass which can yield exposure, uptake and then the internal dose to an individual. As of April 15, 1998, they have made significant progress in the development of a unified approach to the examination of bioavailability and bioaccessibility of elemental contamination of soils for the ingestion route of exposure. This includes the initial characterization of the soil, in vitro measurements of bioaccessibility, and in vivo measurements of bioavailability. They have identified the basic chemical and microbiological characteristics of waste laden soils. These have been used to prioritize the soilsmore » for potential mobility of the trace elements present in the soil. Subsequently they have employed a mass balance technique, which for the first time tracked the movement and distribution of elements through an in vitro or in vivo experimental protocol to define the bioaccessible and the bioavailable fractions of digested soil. The basic mass balance equation for the in vitro system is: MT = MSGJ + MIJ + MR. where MT is the total mass extractable by a specific method, MSGJ, is the mass extracted by the saliva and the gastric juices, MIJ is the mass extracted by the intestinal fluid, and MR is the unextractable portion of the initial mass. The above is based upon the use of a synthetic digestive bio-fluids model that includes the saliva, gastric juices, and intestinal fluids. The system has been devised to sequentially extract elements from soil by starting with an extraction by the saliva and carrying the entire mixture to the subsequent bio-fluids for further extraction. The residence time of the soil in each extractant and the liquid to mass ratio in the gastric juices are based upon typical values known for the human digestive system. Experiments were conducted to examine the sensitivity of the extractions to changes in these major variables. The results indicated the lack of significant extraction after 2 h of residence in gastric fluid. The range of variation of the liquid to mass ratio was element dependent over the interval 100:1 and 5,000:1. The final values used for the extraction protocol were: 2 h residence time , and a ratio of 1,000:1. Details of the chemical composition of the extraction protocol are found in Hamel, 1998.'« less
Authors:
; ;  [1] ; ;  [2]
  1. Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (US). Exposure Measurement and Assessment Div.
  2. Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (US)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
13580
Report Number(s):
EMSP-54584-98
ON: DE00013580
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (US)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Science and Risk Policy
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
56; Progress Report; Biophysics; Doses; Health Hazards; Ecology; Risk Assessment; PROGRESS REPORT; BIOPHYSICS; DOSES; HEALTH HAZARDS; ECOLOGY; RISK ASSESSMENT