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Title: Quantifying point defects in Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 thin films using resonant x-ray diffraction

Cu 2ZnSn(S,Se)4 is an interesting, earth abundant photovoltaic material, but has suffered from low open circuit voltage. To better understand the film structure, we have measured resonant x-ray diffraction across the Cu and Zn K-edges for the device quality thin films of Cu 2ZnSnS4 (8.6% efficiency) and Cu 2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (3.5% efficiency). This approach allows for the confirmation of the underlying kesterite structure and quantification of the concentration of point defects and vacancies on the Cu, Zn, and Sn sublattices. Rietveld refinement of powder diffraction data collected at multiple energies is used to determine that there exists a high level of Cu Zn and Zn Cu defects on the 2c and 2d Wyckoff positions. We observe a significantly lower concentration of Zn Sn defects and Cu or Zn vacancies.
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308; AC02-76SF00515; AC36−08GO28308
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 16; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; zinc; x-ray diffraction; thin film structure; vacancies; powders