Qualitative Characterization of the Aqueous Fraction from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Using 2D Gas Chromatography with Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry
Two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for identifying and quantifying components in complex mixtures. It has been used to analyze gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, bio-diesel and organic fraction of bio-crude/bio-oil. In these experiments, the first dimension of separation was non-polar, followed by a polar separation. Aqueous fractions of bio-crude and other aqueous samples have been examined with similar column combinations. However, sample preparation techniques such as derivatization, solvent extraction, and solid-phase extraction were necessary prior to analysis. In this study, aqueous fraction obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction of algae was characterized by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry without prior sample preparation techniques using a polar separation in the first dimension followed by a non-polar separation. Two-dimensional plots from this analysis were compared with those obtained from the more traditional column combination. Results from qualitative characterization aqueous fractions of algal bio-crude are discussed in detail. The advantages of using a polar separation followed by a non-polar separation for characterization of organics in aqueous samples by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry are highlighted.
- Publication Date:
- OSTI Identifier:
- Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1940-087X; BM0102060
- DOE Contract Number:
- Resource Type:
- Journal Article
- Resource Relation:
- Journal Name: Journal of Visualized Experiments; Journal Volume: 109
- MyJoVE Corp.
- Research Org:
- Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)
- Sponsoring Org:
- Country of Publication:
- United States
- Bio-crude; bio-oil; bio-fuel; aqueous product; hydrothermal liquefaction; microalgae; biomass; aquatic biomass; GC × GC – TOF/MS; catalytic fast pyrolysis; pyridine; pyrazine; organic acids; succinimide.