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Title: Wet scavenging of soluble gases in DC3 deep convective storms using WRF-Chem simulations and aircraft observations: DEEP CONVECTIVE WET SCAVENGING OF GASES

We examine wet scavenging of soluble trace gases in storms observed during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign. We conduct high-resolution simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) of a severe storm in Oklahoma. The model represents well the storm location, size, and structure as compared with Next Generation Weather Radar reflectivity, and simulated CO transport is consistent with aircraft observations. Scavenging efficiencies (SEs) between inflow and outflow of soluble species are calculated from aircraft measurements and model simulations. Using a simple wet scavenging scheme, we simulate the SE of each soluble species within the error bars of the observations. The simulated SEs of all species except nitric acid (HNO3) are highly sensitive to the values specified for the fractions retained in ice when cloud water freezes. To reproduce the observations, we must assume zero ice retention for formaldehyde (CH2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and complete retention for methyl hydrogen peroxide (CH3OOH) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), likely to compensate for the lack of aqueous chemistry in the model. We then compare scavenging efficiencies among storms that formed in Alabama and northeast Colorado and the Oklahoma storm. Significant differences in SEs are seen amongmore » storms and species. More scavenging of HNO3 and less removal of CH3OOH are seen in storms with higher maximum flash rates, an indication of more graupel mass. Graupel is associated with mixed-phase scavenging and lightning production of nitrogen oxides (NOx ), processes that may explain the observed differences in HNO3 and CH3OOH scavenging.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [2] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [5] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [9] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [12] ;  [12] ;  [13] more »;  [13] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [14] « less
  1. Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA
  2. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA
  3. Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA
  4. School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA
  5. Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA
  6. Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA
  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA
  8. Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA
  9. Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA
  10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore Maryland USA
  11. U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis Maryland USA
  12. School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Georgia USA
  13. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine California USA
  14. NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1327086
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-119123
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X; KP1701000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres; Journal Volume: 121; Journal Issue: 8
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English