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Title: Supervisory Control of Loads and Energy Storage in Next-Generation Zero Energy Buildings

A zero energy building (ZEB)—also known as a net zero energy or zero net energy building—is a building that exports as much renewable energy as the total energy it imports from other sources on an annual basis (DOE 2015). Large-scale and commercially viable ZEBs are now in the marketplace, and they are expected to become a larger share of the commercial building footprint as government and private sector policies continue to promote the development of buildings that produce more on-site energy than they use. However, the load profiles of ZEBs are currently perceived by electric utilities to be unfavorable and unpredictable. As shown in Figure ES-1, ZEB load profiles can have abrupt changes in magnitude, at times switching rapidly between exporting and importing electricity. This is a challenge for utilities, which are responsible for constantly balancing electricity supply and demand across the grid. Addressing these concerns will require new strategies and tools.
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  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
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Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION zero energy building; supervisory control; controller; energy storage; whole-building energy model; simulation