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Title: Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods: Bio-oil Analytical Standardization

In this perspective, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. Here, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80 degrees C), 31P NMR for determination of hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations inmore » reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Finally, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA
  2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA
  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge TN USA
  4. Washington State University (WSU), Pullman WA USA
  5. Th√ľnen Institute of Wood Research (TI), Hamburg Germany
  6. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd (VTT), Espoo Finland
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1932-104X
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biofuels, Bioproducts & Biorefining; Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 5
Research Org:
NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States))
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
Country of Publication:
United States
09 BIOMASS FUELS bio-oil; analysis; analytical; titration; round robin; pyrolysis