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Title: Manufacturing metrology for c-Si photovoltaic module reliability and durability, Part I: Feedstock, crystallization and wafering

This article is the first in a three-part series of manufacturing metrology for c-Si photovoltaic (PV) module reliability and durability. Here in Part 1 we focus on the three primary process steps for making silicon substrates for PV cells: (1) feedstock production; (2) ingot and brick production; and (3) wafer production. Each of these steps can affect the final reliability/durability of PV modules in the field with manufacturing metrology potentially playing a significant role. This article provides a comprehensive overview of historical and current processes in each of these three steps, followed by a discussion of associated reliability challenges and metrology strategies that can be employed for increased reliability and durability in resultant modules. Gaps in the current state of understanding in connective metrology data during processing to reliability/durability in the field are then identified along with suggested improvements that should be considered by the PV community.
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1364-0321
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews; Journal Volume: 59
Research Org:
NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States))
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Country of Publication:
United States
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE Siemens; fluidized bed reactor; Czochralski; directional solidification; crystalline silicon; wafer; kerfless