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Title: Computer model for electrochemical cell performance loss over time in terms of capacity, power, and conductance (CPC)

Available capacity, power, and cell conductance figure centrally into performance characterization of electrochemical cells (such as Li-ion cells) over their service life. For example, capacity loss in Li-ion cells is due to a combination of mechanisms, including loss of free available lithium, loss of active host sites, shifts in the potential-capacity curve, etc. Further distinctions can be made regarding irreversible and reversible capacity loss mechanisms. There are tandem needs for accurate interpretation of capacity at characterization conditions (cycling rate, temperature, etc.) and for robust self-consistent modeling techniques that can be used for diagnostic analysis of cell data as well as forecasting of future performance. Analogous issues exist for aging effects on cell conductance and available power. To address these needs, a modeling capability was developed that provides a systematic analysis of the contributing factors to battery performance loss over aging and to act as a regression/prediction platform for cell performance. The modeling basis is a summation of self-consistent chemical kinetics rate expressions, which as individual expressions each covers a distinct mechanism (e.g., loss of active host sites, lithium loss), but collectively account for the net loss of premier metrics (e.g., capacity) over time for a particular characterization condition. Specifically, sigmoid-basedmore » rate expressions are utilized to describe each contribution to performance loss. Through additional mathematical development another tier of expressions is derived and used to perform differential analyses and segregate irreversible versus reversible contributions, as well as to determine concentration profiles over cell aging for affected Li+ ion inventory and fraction of active sites that remain at each time step. Reversible fade components are surmised by comparing fade rates at fast versus slow cycling conditions. The model is easily utilized for predictive calculations so that future capacity performance can be estimated. The invention covers mathematical and theoretical frameworks, and demonstrates application to various Li-ion cells covering test periods that vary in duration, and shows model predictions well past the end of test periods. Version 2.0 Enhancements: the code now covers path-dependent aging scenarios, wherein the framework allows for arbitrarily-chosen aging conditions over a timeline to accommodate prediction of battery aging over a multiplicity of changing conditions. The code framework also allows for cell conductance and power loss evaluations over cell aging, analysis of series strings that contain a thermal anomaly (hot spot), and evaluation of battery thermal management parameters that impact battery lifetimes. Lastly, a comprehensive GUI now resides in the Ver. 2.0 code.« less
  1. Idaho National Laboratory
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
CellSage-CPC 2.0; 004616IBMPC00
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Software Revision:
Software Package Number:
Software CPU:
Source Code Available:
Research Org:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Contributing Orgs:
Idaho National Laboratory
Country of Publication:
United States

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