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Title: The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

In this study, the multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD 550) over land is ~0.19, and that over oceans is ~0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD 550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 andmore » 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD 430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD 430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD 430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD 430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), –0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), –0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMEL AOD –MFRSR AOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments: DOAS AOD = –(0.019 ± 0.006) + (1.03 ± 0.02) × CIMEL AOD ( R 2 = 0.98), DOAS AOD = –(0.006 ± 0.005) + (1.08 ± 0.02) × MFRSR AOD ( R 2 = 0.98), and CIMEL AOD = (0.013 ± 0.004) + (1.05 ± 0.01) × MFRSR AOD ( R 2 = 0.99). The average g measured by DOAS on both days was 0.66 ± 0.03, with a difference of 0.014 ± 0.05 compared to CIMEL. Active steps to minimize the error in the RSP help to reduce the uncertainty in retrievals of AOD and g. As AOD decreases and SZA increases, the RSP signal-to-noise ratio increases. At AOD 430 ~0.4 and 0.10 the absolute AOD errors are ~ 0.014 and 0.003 at 70° SZA and 0.02 and 0.004 at 35° SZA. Inherently calibrated, precise AOD and g measurements are useful to better characterize the aerosol direct effect in urban polluted and remote pristine environments.« less
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), Boulder, CO (United States)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  3. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), Boulder, CO (United States); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States)
  4. NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1867-8548; KP1701000
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830; SC0006080; AC06-76RLO 1830
Published Article
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online); Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1867-8548
European Geosciences Union
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Country of Publication:
United States