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Title: Utilization of CO2 in High Performance Building and Infrastructure Products

The overall objective of DE-FE0004222 was to demonstrate that calcium silicate phases, in the form of either naturally-occuring minerals or synthetic compounds, could replace Portland cement in concrete manufacturing. The calcium silicate phases would be reacted with gaseous CO2 to create a carbonated concrete end-product. If successful, the project would offer a pathway to a significant reduction in the carbon footprint associated with the manufacture of cement and its use in concrete (approximately 816 kg of CO2 is emitted in the production of one tonne of Portland cement). In the initial phases of the Technical Evaluation, Rutgers University teamed with Solidia Technologies to demonstrate that natural wollastonite (CaSiO3), milled to a particle size distribution consistent with that of Portland cement, could indeed fit this bill. The use of mineral wollastonite as a cementitious material would potentially eliminate the CO2 emitted during cement production altogether, and store an additional 250 kg of CO2 during concrete curing. However, it was recognized that mineral wollastonite was not available in volumes that could meaningfully impact the carbon footprint associated with the cement and concrete industries. At this crucial juncture, DE-FE0004222 was redirected to use a synthetic version of wollastonite, hereafter referred to as Solidiamore » Cement™, which could be manufactured in conventional cement making facilities. This approach enables the new cementitious material to be made using existing cement industry raw material supply chains, capital equipment, and distribution channels. It would also offer faster and more complete access to the concrete marketplace. The latter phases of the Technical Evaluation, conducted with Solidia Cement made in research rotary kilns, would demonstrate that industrially viable CO2-curing practices were possible. Prototypes of full-scale precast concrete products such as pavers, concrete masonry units, railroad ties, hollow-core slabs, and aerated concrete were produced to verify the utility of the CO2-curing process. These products exhibited a range of part dimensions and densities that were representative of the precast concrete industry. In the subsequent Demonstration of Commercial Development phase, the characteristics and performance of Solidia Cement made at a LafargeHolcim cement plant were established. This Solidia Cement was then used to demonstrate the CO2-curing process within operating concrete plants. Pavers, concrete masonry units and roofing tiles were produced according to ASTM and manufacturer specifications. A number of attractive manufacturing economies were recognized when Solidia Cement-based concrete parts were compared to their Portland cement based counterparts. These include reduced raw materials waste, reduced dependence on admixtures to control efflorescence, shorter curing time to full concrete strength, faster equipment clean-up, reduced equipment maintenance, and improved inventory management. These economies make the adoption of the Solidia Cement / CO2-curing process attractive even in the absence of environmental incentives. The culminating activity of the Demonstration of Commercial Development phase was the conversion of 10% of the manufacturing capacity at a concrete paver and block company from Portland cement-based products to Solidia Cement-based products. The successful completion of the Demonstration of Commercial Development phase clearly illustrated the environmental benefits associated with Solidia Cement and Solidia Concrete technologies. The industrial production of Solidia Cement, as a low-lime alternative to traditional Portland cement, reduces CO2 emissions at the cement kiln from 816 kg of CO2 per tonne of Portland cement clinker to 570 kg per tonne of Solidia Cement clinker. Industrial scale CO2-curing of Solidia Concrete sequestered a net of 183 kg of CO2 per tonne of Solidia Cement used in concrete pavers. Taken together, these two effects reduced the CO2 footprint associated with the production and use of cement in concrete products by over 50% (a reduction of 430 kg of CO2 per tonne of cement). Applied at the first commercial Solidia Concrete manufacturing site, the two effects will combine to reduce the CO2 footprint associated with the production and use of cement by over 10,000 tonnes per year. When applied across the precast concrete industry in the U.S., it is estimated that the CO2 footprint will be reduced by 8.6 million tonnes per year (20 million tonnes of cement used in precast concrete x 430 kg of CO2 per tonne of cement). Applied across the entire concrete industry in the U.S., it is expected that 43 million tonnes of CO2 will be avoided per year (100 million tonnes of cement used in all concrete x 430 kg of CO2 per tonne of cement).« less
Authors:
 [1]
  1. Solidia Technologies Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1301860
DOE Contract Number:
FE0004222
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
Solidia Technologies Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 42 ENGINEERING