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Title: Analysis & Tools to Spur Increased Deployment of “Waste Heat” Rejection/Recycling Hybrid Ground-source Heat Pump Systems in Hot, Arid or Semiarid Climates Like Texas

This project team analyzed supplemental heat rejection/recovery (SHR) devices or systems that could be used in hybrid ground source heat pump (HGHP) systems located in arid or semi-arid regions in southwestern U.S. Identification of effective SHR solutions would enhance the deployment of ground source heat pumps (GHP) in these regions. In a parallel effort, the team developed integrated GHP models that coupled the building load, heat pump, and ground loop subsystems and which could be applied to residential and commercial office buildings. Then GHP and HGHP performances could be compared in terms of operational performance and life-cycle costs. Several potential SHR devices were analyzed by applying two strategies: 1) to remove heat directly from the water in the ground loop before it enters the ground and 2) to remove heat in the refrigerant loop of the vapor compression cycle (VCC) of the heat pump so less heat is transferred to the water loop at the condenser of the VCC. Cooling towers, adsorption coolers, and thermoelectric liquid coolers were included in strategy 1, and expanded desuperheaters, thermosyphons, and an optimized VCC were included in strategy 2. Of all SHR devices analyzed, only the cooling tower provided a cost-effective performance enhancement. Formore » the integrated GHP model, the project team selected the building load model HAMBASE and its powerful computational Simulink/MatLab platform, empirical performance map models of the heat pumps based upon manufacturers’ performance data, and a ground loop model developed by Oklahoma State University and rewritten for this project in Simulink/MatLab. The design process used GLHEPRO, also from Oklahoma State University, to size the borehole fields. The building load and ground loop models were compared with simulations from eQuest, ASHRAE 140-2008 standards, EnergyPlus, and GLHEPRO and were found to predict those subsystems’ performance well. The integrated GHP model was applied to a 195m2 (2100ft2) residential building and a 4,982m2 (53,628ft2) three-story commercial office building, and it ran 10-15 year simulations. The integrated GHP model and its Simulink platform provided residential data, ranging from seconds to years, and commercial office building data, ranging from minutes to years. A cooling tower model was coupled to the base case integrated GHP model for the residential building and the resulting HGHP system provided a cost-effective solution for the Austin, TX location. Simulations for both the residential and commercial building models were run with varying degrees of SHR (device/system not identified) and the results were found to significantly decrease installation costs, increase heat pump efficiency (lower entering water temperature), and prolong the lifetime of the borehole field. Lifetime cycle costs were estimated from the simulation results. Sensitivity studies on system operating performance and lifetime costs were performed on design parameters, such as construction materials, borehole length, borehole configuration and spacing, grout conductivity, and effects of SHR. While some of the results are intuitive, these studies provided quantitative estimates of improved performance and cost. One of the most important results of this sensitivity study is that overall system performance is very sensitive to these design parameters and that modeling and simulation are essential tools to design cost-effective systems.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1296929
Report Number(s):
Final Technical Report-UT--EE0002803
DOE Contract Number:
EE0002803
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Related Information: Gaspredes, J.L., Masada, G.Y., and Moon, T.J., “Development of an Integrated Building Load-Ground Source Heat Pump Model as a Test Bed to Assess Short- and Long-Term Heat Pump and Ground Loop Performance,” ASME 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, ASME, San Diego, CA, July 23-26, 2012; Proc. ASME. 44816, ASME 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, Parts A and B, pp. 815-825; DOI: 10.1115/ES2012-91309. Gaspredes, J.L., Masada, G.Y., and Moon, T.J., “Effects of Ground Loop Design Parameters on Short- and Long-Term Operational and Economics of Ground Source Heat Pumps in Hot, Semi-Arid Areas,” ASME 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, ASME, San Diego, CA, July 23-26, 2012; Proc. ASME. 44816, ASME 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, Parts A and B, pp. 827-836; DOI: 10.1115/ES2012-91311. Balasubramanian, S., Gaspredes, J.L., Masada, G.Y., and Moon, T.J., “Cooling Towers as Supplemental Heat Rejection Systems in Ground Source Heat Pumps for Residential Houses in Texas and other Semi-Arid Regions,” ASME 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, ASME, San Diego, CA, July 23-26, 2012; Proc. ASME. 44816, ASME 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, Parts A and B, pp. 719-729; DOI: 10.1115/ES2012-91310. Gaspredes, J.L., Masada, G.Y., and Moon, T.J., “A Simulink-Based Building Load-Ground Source Heat Pump Model Used to Assess Short-and Long-Term Heat Pump and Ground Loop Performance,” ASME J. Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, Vol. 6, June 2014, pp. 021013-1-10, DOI: 10.1115/1.402081. Balasubramanian, S., Gaspredes, J.L., Moon, T.J., and Masada, G.Y., "Feasibility of a Residential Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System” ASME J. Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, Vol. 8, Sept. 2016, pp. 031004-1-9, DOI: 10.1115/1.4032763.
Research Org:
Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Office (EE-5B)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Geothermal Heat Pumps; Ground Source Heat Pumps; model