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Title: Gauge invariance in the theoretical description of time-resolved angle-resolved pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy

Nonequilibrium calculations in the presence of an electric field are usually performed in a gauge, and need to be transformed to reveal the gauge-invariant observables. In this work, we discuss the issue of gauge invariance in the context of time-resolved angle-resolved pump/probe photoemission. If the probe is applied while the pump is still on, one must ensure that the calculations of the observed photocurrent are gauge invariant. We also discuss the requirement of the photoemission signal to be positive and the relationship of this constraint to gauge invariance. We end by discussing some technical details related to the perturbative derivation of the photoemission spectra, which involve processes where the pump pulse photoexcites electrons due to nonequilibrium effects.
Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1270633
Report Number(s):
SLAC-PUB--16652
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-8949; arXiv:1403.7585
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physica Scripta; Journal Volume: T165
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
US DOE Office of Science (DOE SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE MATSCI