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Title: Role of Off-Line-of-Sight Propagation in Geomagnetic EMP Formation

The author’s synchrotron radiation based 3D geomagnetic EMP code MACSYNC has been used to explore the impact on pulse rise time and air conductivity of EMP propagation paths to the observer that are located off the direct line-of-sight (LOS) between gamma source and observer. This geometry is always present because, for an isotropic source, most the gammas are emitted at an angle with respect to the LOS. Computations for a 1 kt near-surface burst observed from space yield two principal findings: 1. The rise time is generated by the combined actions of a) electron spreading along the LOS due to the Compton electron emission angular distribution folded with electron multiple scattering effects, and b) radiation arrival time spreading due to length differences for different off-LOS propagation paths. The pulse rise time does not depend on the rise time of the conductivity. The conductivity rise time determines the pulse amplitude. 2. One-dimensional legacy EMP codes are inherently incapable of producing the correct pulse shape because they cannot treat the dependence of the conductivity on two dimensions, i.e. the radius from the source and the angle of the propagation path with the LOS. This divergence from one-dimensionality begins at a small fractionmore » of a nanosecond for a sea-level burst. This effect will also be present in high-altitude bursts, however, determination of its onset time and magnitude requires high-altitude computations which have not yet been done.« less
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
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Technical Report
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
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Country of Publication:
United States