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Title: Lignocellulose Degradation Mechanisms Across the Tree of Life

Organisms use diverse mechanisms involving multiple complementary enzymes, particularly glycoside hydrolases (GHs), to deconstruct lignocellulose. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) produced by bacteria and fungi facilitate deconstruction as does the Fenton chemistry of brown-rot fungi. Lignin depolymerisation is achieved by white-rot fungi and certain bacteria, using peroxidases and laccases. Meta-omics is now revealing the complexity of prokaryotic degradative activity in lignocellulose-rich environments. Protists from termite guts and some oomycetes produce multiple lignocellulolytic enzymes. We found that the Lignocellulose-consuming animals secrete some GHs, but most harbour a diverse enzyme-secreting gut microflora in a mutualism that is particularly complex in termites. Shipworms however, house GH-secreting and LPMO-secreting bacteria separate from the site of digestion and the isopod Limnoria relies on endogenous enzymes alone. Moreover, the omics revolution is identifying many novel enzymes and paradigms for biomass deconstruction, but more emphasis on function is required, particularly for enzyme cocktails, in which LPMOs may play an important role.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [1] ;  [7] ;  [7] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [8] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [9]
  1. Univ. of Portsmouth (United Kingdom)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Univ. of York (United Kingdom)
  4. Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom)
  5. Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)
  6. Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  7. Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)
  8. Novozymes As, Bagsvaerd (Denmark)
  9. Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Bremen (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1251468
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5100-65549
Journal ID: ISSN 1367-5931
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal ID: ISSN 1367-5931
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; lignin depolymerisation; lignocellulolytic enzymes; omics; biomass deconstruction; lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases