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Title: Coherence Conversion for Optimized Resolution in Optical Measurements - Example of Femtosecond Time Resolution Using the Transverse Coherence of 100-Picosecond X-Rays

A way is proposed to obtain a femtosecond time resolution over a picosecond range in x-ray spectroscopic measurements where the light source and the detector are much slower than that. It is based on the invariance of the modulus of the Fourier transform to object translations. The method geometrically correlates time in the sample with x-ray amplitudes over a spatial coordinate, and then takes the optical Fourier transform through far-field diffraction. Thus, explicitly time-invariant intensities that encode the time evolution of the sample can be measured with a slow detector. This corresponds to a phase-space transformation that converts the transverse coherence to become effective in the longitudinal direction. Because synchrotron-radiation sources have highly anisotropic coherence properties with about $10^5$ longitudinal electromagnetic-field modes at 1 eV bandwidth, but only tens to hundreds transverse modes, coherence conversion can drastically improve the time resolution. Reconstruction of the femtosecond time evolution in the sample from the Fourier intensities is subject to a phase ambiguity that is well-known in crystallography. However, a way is presented to resolve it that is not available in that discipline. Finally, data from a demonstration experiment are presented. The same concept can be used to obtain attosecond time resolution withmore » an x-ray free-electron laser.« less
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Modern Optics; Journal Volume: 62; Journal Issue: 12
Taylor and Francis
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science - Office of Basic Energy Sciences - Scientific User Facilities Division
Country of Publication:
United States