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Title: Optimizing areal capacities through understanding the limitations of lithium-ion electrodes

Increasing the areal capacity or electrode thickness in lithium ion batteries is one possible means to increase pack level energy density while simultaneously lowering cost. The physics that limit use of high areal capacity as a function of battery power to energy ratio are poorly understood and thus most currently produced automotive lithium ion cells utilize modest loadings to ensure long life over the vehicle battery operation. Here we show electrolyte transport limits the utilization of the positive electrode at critical C-rates during discharge; whereas, a combination of electrolyte transport and polarization lead to lithium plating in the graphite electrode during charge. Experimental measurements are compared with theoretical predictions based on concentrated solution and porous electrode theories. An analytical expression is derived to provide design criteria for long lived operation based on the physical properties of the electrode and electrolyte. Finally, a guideline is proposed that graphite cells should avoid charge current densities near or above 4 mA/cm2 unless additional precautions have been made to avoid deleterious side reaction.
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of the Electrochemical Society; Journal Volume: 163; Journal Issue: 2
The Electrochemical Society
Research Org:
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) - Office of Vehicle Technology
Country of Publication:
United States
Battery; Degradation; Lithium-ion; Modeling