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Title: Evolving images of the proton: Hadron physics over the past 40 years

Once upon a time, the world was simple: the proton contained three quarks, two ups and a down. How these give the proton its mass and its spin seemed obvious. Over the past 40 years the proton has become more complicated, and how even these most obvious of its properties is explained in a universe of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains a challenge. That this should be so should come as no surprise. Quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is seemingly simple, and its consequences are straightforward in the domain of hard scattering where perturbation theory applies. However, the beauty of the hadron world is its diversity. The existence of hadrons, their properties, and their binding into nuclei do not appear in the Lagrangian of QCD. They all emerge as a result of its strong coupling. Strong coupling QCD creates complex phenomena, much richer than known 40 years ago: a richness that ensures colour confinement and accounts for more than 95% of the mass of the visible Universe. How strong coupling QCD really works requires a synergy between experiment and theory. Furthermore, a very personal view of these fascinating developments in cold QCD is presented.
  1. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
JLAB-THY-16-2239; DOE/OR/23177-5061
Journal ID: ISSN 0954-3899
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Physics. G, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0954-3899
IOP Publishing
Research Org:
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
Country of Publication:
United States