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Title: Thorium: Crustal abundance, joint production, and economic availability

Recently, interest in thorium's potential use in a nuclear fuel cycle has been renewed. Thorium is more abundant, at least on average, than uranium in the earth's crust and, therefore, could theoretically extend the use of nuclear energy technology beyond the economic limits of uranium resources. This paper provides an economic assessment of thorium availability by creating cumulative-availability and potential mining-industry cost curves, based on known thorium resources. These tools provide two perspectives on the economic availability of thorium. In the long term, physical quantities of thorium likely will not be a constraint on the development of a thorium fuel cycle. In the medium term, however, thorium supply may be limited by constraints associated with its production as a by-product of rare earth elements and heavy mineral sands. As a result, environmental concerns, social issues, regulation, and technology also present issues for the medium and long term supply of thorium.
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0301-4207; PII: S0301420715000185
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Resources Policy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0301-4207
Research Org:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; thorium availability; thorium costs; availability; thorium; joint production; cumulative availability curve; mine cost curve