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Title: The state of understanding of the lithium-ion-battery graphite solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and its relationship to formation cycling

An in-depth review is presented on the science of lithium-ion battery (LIB) solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on the graphite anode, including structure, morphology, chemical composition, electrochemistry, formation mechanism, and LIB formation cycling. During initial operation of LIBs, the SEI layer forms on the graphite surfaces, the most commonly used anode material, due to side reactions with the electrolyte solvent/salt at low electro-reduction potentials. It is accepted that the SEI layer is essential to the long-term performance of LIBs, and it also has an impact on its initial capacity loss, self-discharge characteristics, cycle life, rate capability, and safety. While the presence of the anode SEI layer is vital, it is difficult to control its formation and growth, as the chemical composition, morphology, and stability depend on several factors. These factors include the type of graphite, electrolyte composition, electrochemical conditions, and cell temperature. Thus, SEI layer formation and electrochemical stability over long-term operation should be a primary topic of future investigation in the development of LIB technology. We review the progression of knowledge gained about the anode SEI, from its discovery in 1979 to the current state of understanding, and covers its formation process, differences in the chemical and structural makeupmore » when cell materials and components are varied, methods of characterization, and associated reactions with the liquid electrolyte phase. It also discusses the relationship of the SEI layer to the LIB formation step, which involves both electrolyte wetting and subsequent slow charge-discharge cycles to grow the SEI.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
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Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 105; Journal ID: ISSN 0008-6223
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center (NTRC); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Country of Publication:
United States