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Title: Visualizing non-equilibrium lithiation of spinel oxide via in situ transmission electron microscopy

In this study, spinel transition metal oxides are an important class of materials that are being considered as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, due to their low cost and high theoretical capacity. The lithiation of these compounds is known to undergo a two-step reaction, whereby intercalation and conversion occur in a sequential fashion. These two reactions are known to have distinct reaction dynamics, but it is unclear how the kinetics of these processes affect the overall electrochemical response. Here, we explore the lithiation of nanosized magnetite (F e3O 4) by employing a new strain-sensitive, bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy approach.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; Fe3O4 nanoparticles; lithium ion battery; conversion; intercalation; multiple-step; in situ TEM; Center for Functional Nanomaterials