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Title: Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and processes in liquids

Here, noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid–solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imaging with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Nano
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1936-0851
American Chemical Society
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY in situ imaging; radiolysis-free in-liquid imaging; encapsulation; near-field microwave microscopy