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Title: Light-emitting diode technology status and directions: Opportunities for horticultural lighting

Here, light-emitting diode (LED) technology has advanced rapidly over the last decade, primarily driven by display and general illumination applications ("solid-state lighting (SSL) for humans"). These advancements have made LED lighting technically and economically advantageous not only for these applications, but also, as an indirect benefit, for adjacent applications such as horticultural lighting ("SSL for plants"). Moreover, LED technology has much room for continued improvement. In the near-term, these improvements will continue to be driven by SSL for humans (with indirect benefit to SSL for plants), the most important of which can be anticipated.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  2. U.S. Dept. of Energy Solid State Lighting Program, Washington, DC (United States)
  3. Arkesso, Palo Alto, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0567-7572; 617647
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Acta Horticulturae
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Issue: 1134; Journal ID: ISSN 0567-7572
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Program (EE-5B)
Country of Publication:
United States
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; light-emitting diodes (LEDs); solid-state lighting; horticultural lighting; plant biology and environment co-evolution; chromaticity; light distribution; intelligent control