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Title: Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions analysis of catalysts for hydrotreating of fast pyrolysis bio-oil

Bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass requires multi-stage catalytic hydroprocessing to produce hydrocarbon drop-in fuels. The current proposed process design involves fixed beds of ruthenium-based catalyst and conventional petroleum hydrotreating catalyst. Similar to petroleum processing, the catalyst is spent as a result of coking and other deactivation mechanisms, and must be changed out periodically. Biofuel life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) assessments typically ignore the impact of catalyst consumed during fuel conversion as a result of limited lifetime, representing a data gap in the analyses. To help fill this data gap, life cycle GHGs were estimated for two representative examples of fast pyrolysis bio-oil hydrotreating catalyst, NiMo/Al2O3 and Ru/C, and integrated into the conversion-stage GHG analysis. Life cycle GHGs for the NiMo/Al2O3 and Ru/C catalysts are estimated at 5.5 and 81 kg CO2-e/kg catalyst, respectively. Contribution of catalyst consumption to total conversion-stage GHGs is 0.5% for NiMo/Al2O3 and 5% for Ru/C. This analysis does not consider secondary sourcing of metals for catalyst manufacture and therefore these are likely to be conservative estimates compared to applications where a spent catalyst recycler can be used.
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0961-9534; BM0101010
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biomass and Bioenergy; Journal Volume: 86
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States