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Title: Solid-state graphene formation via a nickel carbide intermediate phase [Nickel carbide (Ni3C) as an intermediate phase for graphene formation]

Direct formation of graphene with controlled number of graphitic layers on dielectric surfaces is highly desired for practical applications. Despite significant progress achieved in understanding the formation of graphene on metallic surfaces through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrocarbons, very limited research is available elucidating the graphene formation process via rapid thermal processing (RTP) of solid-state amorphous carbon, through which graphene is formed directly on dielectric surfaces accompanied by autonomous nickel evaporation. It is suggested that a metastable hexagonal nickel carbide (Ni3C) intermediate phase plays a critical role in transforming amorphous carbon to 2D crystalline graphene and contributing to the autonomous Ni evaporation. Temperature resolved carbon and nickel evolution in the RTP process is investigated using Auger electron spectroscopic (AES) depth profiling and glancing-angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD). Formation, migration and decomposition of the hexagonal Ni3C are confirmed to be responsible for the formation of graphene and the evaporation of Ni at 1100 °C. The Ni3C-assisted graphene formation mechanism expands the understanding of Ni-catalyzed graphene formation, and provides insightful guidance for controlled growth of graphene through the solid-state transformation process.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Chemistry Inst. of Condensed Matter of Bordeaux (France)
  4. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
RSC Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2046-2069
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States