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Title: In Situ TEM Observations of Sn-Containing Silicon Nanowires Undergoing Reversible Pore Formation Due to Fast Lithiation/Delithiation Kinetics

In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out to observe directly in real time the lithiation and delithiation of silicon (Si) nanowires with significant amounts of tin (Sn). The incorporation of Sn significantly enhances the lithiation rate compared to typical Si nanowires. For instance, surface diffusion is enhanced by two orders of magnitude and the bulk lithiation rate by one order of magnitude, resulting in a sequential surface-then-core lithiation mechanism. Pore formation was observed in the nanowires during delithiation, most likely as a result of the fast delithiation kinetics of the nanowires. Pore formation was reversible and the pores disappeared during subsequent lithiation. When an amorphous Si shell was applied to the nanowires, pore formation was not observed during the in situ TEM experimences. Ex situ TEM analysis of Sn-containing Si nanowires cycled in coin cell batteries also showed that the application of an a-Si shell significantly retards pore formation in these nanowires.
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1932-7447; 48266; KP1704020
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C; Journal Volume: 119; Journal Issue: 38
American Chemical Society
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory