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Title: Enhancement of magnetocaloric effect in the Gd2Al phase by Co alloying

We observe that Cu clusters grow on surface terraces of graphite as a result of physical vapor deposition in ultrahigh vacuum. We show that the observation is incompatible with a variety of models incorporating homogeneous nucleation and high level calculations of atomic-scale energetics. An alternative explanation, ion-mediated heterogeneous nucleation, is proposed and validated, both with theory and experiment. This serves as a case study in identifying when and whether the simple, common observation of metal clusters on carbon-rich surfaces can be interpreted in terms of homogeneous nucleation. We describe a general approach for making system-specific and laboratory-specific predictions.
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)
  2. Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979; JAPIAU
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 18; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Gd2Al intermetallic compound; magnetocaloric effect; field-induced transition; aluminum; ferromagnetism; entropy; alloy phase transitions; Curie point